Best of Aviation 2022

The mechanization of farming practices throughout the world has revolutionized food production, enabling it to maintain pace with population growth except in some lessdeveloped countries, most notably in Africa.
There is a long history of agricultural mechanization that has been human and animal powered rather than engine powered. The difference in scale is quite staggering and is a measure of the economic gulf between the rich and the poor on this planet. For example, an average horse plowing the soil at an average rate will perform work at a rate of one horsepower (hp). In contrast, a 100 hp (75 kW) tractor could work (e.g. plowing the soil) at a rate one hundred times faster than the horse.

For smaller, less accessible areas, knapsack sprayers mounted on a persons back and operated by a manually pressurized nozzle are still quite popular and inexpensive. More specialized equipment including high-pressure orchard sprayers, airblast sprayers, electrostatic sprayers, aircraft sprayers and dusters has also been described in Fertilizer Applicators and Plant Protection Equipment (EOLSS on-line, 2002). The emphasis is on the adoption of mechanized techniques in farming systems which are already using animal draft. The issues surrounding the introduction of animal draft where only hand cultivation is practiced are discussed in Pingali, Bigot, and Binswanger (1985). Instead of a summary or conclusions, a set of generalizations is presented in the text.

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In addition, some (but not all) mechanization is subject to genuine economies of scale: it is technically more efficient to design a large rather than a small machine. Even machines invented in countries with abundant labor (and therefore smaller farms) were first developed for the largest farms, because they had the lowest costs of capital relative to labor.The market for machines expanded to smaller farms only when labor costs rose or capital became more abundant. In the history of engineering, technical developments have often been embodied in smaller and smaller machines.Tractors are complex machines that are made up of many different parts. Here are some common parts of a tractor:
Engine: The engine is the power source of the tractor. It generates the power needed to move the tractor and operate its attachments.
Transmission: The transmission is the system that transfers power from the engine to the wheels of the tractor. It allows the operator to adjust the speed and power of the tractor.
Tires: Tires provide traction and stability for the tractor. They are typically large and sturdy, and are designed to handle the weight and torque of the tractor.
Steering system: The steering system allows the operator to control the direction of the tractor. It typically consists of a steering wheel, steering column, and linkage to the front wheels.
Hydraulic system: The hydraulic system is a system of pumps and valves that helps operate the tractor's attachments. It uses pressurized fluid to power lifting and moving tasks.
Hitch: The hitch is a mechanical connection point on the rear of the tractor that is used to attach implements and other equipment.
Operator's platform: The operator's platform is the area where the operator sits and controls the tractor. It typically includes a seat, dashboard, and controls for the tractor's functions.
Overall, these are some of the main parts of a tractor that work together to allow the tractor to perform its tasks.

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