Alternatively, it may be applied on the surface of the ground or crop (e.g. grass) using a tractor mounted centrifugal spinner or oscillating spout type applicator where the fertilizer is broadcast rather than placed in rows. Aerial application of fertilizers may also be used in locations inaccessible to tractors, as described in Fertilizer Applicators and Plant Protection Equipment (EOLSS on-line, 2002). Both pressurized (typically using ammonia) and nonpressurized liquid fertilizer applicators are also described. Protection of plants from diseases and pests is normally achieved by atomizing a liquid formulation containing the active pesticide ingredient through a small nozzle under pressure and spraying onto, beside or beneath the crop canopy, or by using granular pesticide applicators.
Milling rice for home consumption can also be done over a long period, and in Asia it is common for a mill owner to 'rent' his machine to customers. Rental markets for land preparation, with the use of animals or tractors, were once common in the United States, when plows were scarce, and in Europe. Such rental markets are now common in Asia wherever tractors or power tillers have penetrated.