Europe went through equally dramatic changes after 1955. Cases 1 and 2 show that the labor effects of mechanization depend on the alternatives available to the economy. The Indian Punjab provides an opposite example. The green revolution initiated in the mid-1960s led to sharply increased demand for labor, which caused a big rise in real wages around 1968 (Gupta and Shangari 1979).
For on-farm transport, American farmers continued to use horses well into the 1940s. In Asia, where farms are rarely big enough to support the purchase of a truck, farm-to-market transport is increasingly done by hired trucks or tractors. Rubber tires have given tractors a strong comparative advantage in most forms of transport.