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Examples include herbicide application based on sensed soil organic matter content, and anhydrous ammonia application in growing maize based on sensed soil nitrate level. This is a complex technology that requires a major investment in research and development. The pay-off will derive from the savings accrued due to lower use of expensive agrochemicals, environmental protection and sustainability.

Japan and the United States relied on different technological paths to expand their agricultural output. Research summarized by Hayami and others (1975) and Binswanger and Ruttan (1978) has established that Japan has long emphasized biological, yield-raising technology, much of it supported by heavy investment in irrigation. This emphasis continued with systematic investment in agricultural research initiated after 1868.

Machinery Fantastic is Awesome Machine videos CenterLeasing of expensive equipment is also an option but generally is less popular except with larger producers. In the developing countries, the trend towards adoption of the tractor as the fundamental unit of agricultural mechanization systems is sure to continue. However, for many small farmers in deprived regions the transition to tractor-based mechanization is not a realistic option due to the lack of finance and basic infrastructure. In this situation, a continued reliance on human energy and animal-powered equipment for tillage, planting and harvesting will prevail for the foreseeable future.

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Alternatively, it may be applied on the surface of the ground or crop (e.g. grass) using a tractor mounted centrifugal spinner or oscillating spout type applicator where the fertilizer is broadcast rather than placed in rows. Aerial application of fertilizers may also be used in locations inaccessible to tractors, as described in Fertilizer Applicators and Plant Protection Equipment (EOLSS on-line, 2002). Both pressurized (typically using ammonia) and nonpressurized liquid fertilizer applicators are also described. Protection of plants from diseases and pests is normally achieved by atomizing a liquid formulation containing the active pesticide ingredient through a small nozzle under pressure and spraying onto, beside or beneath the crop canopy, or by using granular pesticide applicators.

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