Europe went through equally dramatic changes after 1955. Cases 1 and 2 show that the labor effects of mechanization depend on the alternatives available to the economy. The Indian Punjab provides an opposite example. The green revolution initiated in the mid-1960s led to sharply increased demand for labor, which caused a big rise in real wages around 1968 (Gupta and Shangari 1979).
And in China the number of threshers alone exceeded the combined total of tractors and power tillers, even in 1980. In all of Asia mechanical rice milling for large trade quantities had already been introduced in the late nineteenth century, usually based on steam and later on internal combustion engines. Smaller rice mills have swept across Asia since the 1950s; it is hard to find villages where rice is still pounded by hand.