Successful agricultural growth in various developed countries has therefore capitalized on abundant factors of production: land and mechanization in the United States; labor, land improvements, and biological technology in Japan. Continental Europe also emphasized biological technology before shifting the emphasis to mechanical technology.
Europe went through equally dramatic changes after 1955. Cases 1 and 2 show that the labor effects of mechanization depend on the alternatives available to the economy. The Indian Punjab provides an opposite example. The green revolution initiated in the mid-1960s led to sharply increased demand for labor, which caused a big rise in real wages around 1968 (Gupta and Shangari 1979).