The operations of farming for which machines are used are diverse. For crop production they include handling of residues from previous crops; primary and secondary tillage of the soil; fertilizer distribution and application; seeding, planting, and transplanting; cultivation; pest control; harvesting; transportation; storage; premarketing processing; drainage; irrigation and erosion control; and water conservation. Likewise, the use of preventive maintenance protocols are desirable in the off-season e.g. replacing parts (such as bearings or soil engaging elements) that may break or wear out before they need repair or replacement. The use of highly skilled and competent operators is also desirable to ensure optimal performance of equipment that is generally getting bigger, working faster and becoming more complex despite the welcome introduction of more automated control and ergonomic systems designed to assist and enhance performance.
Primary power sources are many and varied including solar, wind, hydroenergy and geothermal, which may be used to power stationery equipment (wind, hydroenergy), to provide heating or cooling (solar, geothermal) or to generate electricity (wind, hydroenergy) to service a multiplicity of on-farm activities (see also, Energy Sources: Renewable and Non Renewable). Thus mechanical milling is even more widespread than mechanical threshing. But where the green revolution raised wages and increased harvests (as in Indian Punjab, Philippines, and central Thailand), the small threshers were rapidly adopted once efficient designs were available.
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Higher wages lead to the use of larger sprayers which may be animal- or tractor-drawn. Assessment. The selective use of new power sources (particularly tractors) for power-intensive operations has often been viewed as a sign of inefficiency. Since a farmer makes a huge investment in a tractor, why not use it for all operations? U.S. studies carried out in the 1920s and 1930s show clearly that there is nothing inefficient in the selective use of tractors for power-intensive operations.The use of tractors can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment. Some potential environmental impacts of tractor use include: Soil compaction: Tractors can cause soil compaction, which can reduce the amount of air and water that can reach plant roots and can lead to reduced crop yields. This can be especially problematic in wet conditions, when the weight of the tractor can cause the soil to become compacted more easily. Air pollution: Tractors and other farm equipment are a significant source of air pollution, particularly from the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These emissions contribute to climate change and can have negative impacts on human health. Water pollution: Tractors and other farm equipment can also contribute to water pollution through the use of pesticides and fertilizers, which can wash off fields and into streams and rivers, where they can harm aquatic life and contaminate drinking water. Habitat destruction: The use of tractors and other farm equipment can lead to the destruction of natural habitats, particularly in areas where land is being cleared for agriculture or other purposes. This can have negative impacts on the plants and animals that rely on these habitats. On the other hand, tractors can also have positive environmental impacts, such as helping to reduce the use of animal labor and enabling more efficient land use, which can lead to reduced deforestation and habitat destruction.