Food production can be increased if the primary producer or farmer is provided with a guaranteed profitable income for the farm produce. With such guarantees the farmer can invest in the necessary inputs including mechanization to increase productivity, secure in the knowledge that, as productivity increases, income will increase enabling payback and facilitating further investment as required. Crop pests include insects, fungi and weeds. It is not common to combine insecticides, fungicides and herbicides (weedkillers) but rather to apply them as individual or single formulations.The pesticide applicator sprayer is normally tractor-mounted and the tractor power-take-off shaft drives the spray pump. Such sprayer equipment (Figure 6) can also be used to apply liquid fertilizer especially where foliar applications are relevant (e.g. cereals).
Precision application of agrochemicals is an exciting and active area of research where pesticides and fertilizers are applied only where they are needed and at the appropriate concentration to elicit an optimum response. This approach requires accurate information on soil fertility and pest activity and an applicator that can automatically vary the application rate as desired. Because India's economy was growing slowly, a slower rate of mechanization and a larger volume of migration could have solved the labor shortages in Punjab at a lower capital cost. And the extra employment would have meant that the benefits of the green revolution were shared more widely with workers in poorer regions.