Precision seeders place single seeds at predetermined intervals in evenly spaced rows to provide an optimum plant population using pretreated seeds suited to mechanical metering under gravity and with high germination and establishment potential. Plants with lesser germination potential or those requiring an earlier growing date (rice, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, tobacco) may be transplanted typically in biodegradable containers in which the seedling has been established in greenhouses.
Hay loaders became widely used in the United States after 1880 but did not spread in continental Europe until after World War 11, only to be quickly replaced by hay balers and other more sophisticated machines. Most of the animal-drawn harvesting machines derived their power from horses. Oxen could not be used successfully because sufficient power could be generated only at the higher speed of horses.