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Another interesting development pioneered in France is the robotic approach to harvesting tree fruit like apples and oranges where the mature fruit is selected by machine vision using light reflectance, picked mechanically by the robot and conveyed pneumatically (under vacuum) to a storage pallet. Whether these exciting but expensive technologies can be successfully commercialized remains to be seen. Gantry mechanization (including harvesting) of fruits and vegetables in greenhouses has also been investigated but cost remains a difficult factor to overcome.
In case 1 unused land is available and mechanization leads to output growth-the more so, the higher the elasticity of final demand. The best example is the United States in the second half of the century: an impressive horse-based mechanization led to massive agricultural growth because land was rapidly opened up and export markets in Europe provided a highly elastic demand for agricultural products.

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Another interesting development pioneered in France is the robotic approach to harvesting tree fruit like apples and oranges where the mature fruit is selected by machine vision using light reflectance, picked mechanically by the robot and conveyed pneumatically (under vacuum) to a storage pallet. Whether these exciting but expensive technologies can be successfully commercialized remains to be seen. Gantry mechanization (including harvesting) of fruits and vegetables in greenhouses has also been investigated but cost remains a difficult factor to overcome.
In case 1 unused land is available and mechanization leads to output growth-the more so, the higher the elasticity of final demand. The best example is the United States in the second half of the century: an impressive horse-based mechanization led to massive agricultural growth because land was rapidly opened up and export markets in Europe provided a highly elastic demand for agricultural products.

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