For small grain, drying to 14% moisture (wet basis) is sufficient to inhibit both fungal and respirational activity. The shelf life of certain fruits (most commonly apples) may be extended through controlled atmosphere storage (using reduced atmospheric oxygen) in refrigerated stores. In most instances, the careful control of temperature and relative humidity is sufficient to extend the shelf life of most crop products stored on the farm. Increasing emphasis on quality control and assessment will be facilitated by novel items of equipment including the electronic nose, biosensors, X-ray computer-aided technology (i.e. three dimensional mapping; CAT scan), nuclear magnetic resonance (Figure 9) and chlorophyll fluorescence.
The mechanization of farming in developing countries has been very uneven. In certain parts of Africa, in Java, and in many hilly regions, farmers still till their fields with hand tools even though animal tillage has been common in other parts of the world for thousands of years. While draft animals have completely disappeared in North America, Europe, and Japan, they have been widely accepted in Senegal only in the past few decades.