Tobi, fourth place in a difficult move (Kľačianská podkova 2020)

Tobi, fourth place in a difficult move (Kľačianská podkova 2020)

For smaller, less accessible areas, knapsack sprayers mounted on a persons back and operated by a manually pressurized nozzle are still quite popular and inexpensive. More specialized equipment including high-pressure orchard sprayers, airblast sprayers, electrostatic sprayers, aircraft sprayers and dusters has also been described in Fertilizer Applicators and Plant Protection Equipment (EOLSS on-line, 2002).

Another interesting development pioneered in France is the robotic approach to harvesting tree fruit like apples and oranges where the mature fruit is selected by machine vision using light reflectance, picked mechanically by the robot and conveyed pneumatically (under vacuum) to a storage pallet. Whether these exciting but expensive technologies can be successfully commercialized remains to be seen. Gantry mechanization (including harvesting) of fruits and vegetables in greenhouses has also been investigated but cost remains a difficult factor to overcome.

Date: 4/1/2020 Location: Turčianské Kľačany, Slovakia Kôň Tobi, majiteľ Miroslav Šulava ml.

Human and animal powered mechanization systems (Figures 2 and 3) are described in detail in Human and Animal Powered Machinery, EOLSS on-line, 2002. The drudgery, long hours and low pay typically associated with these systems make rural life in the developing countries an unattractive career for young men and women.

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Crop pests include insects, fungi and weeds. It is not common to combine insecticides, fungicides and herbicides (weedkillers) but rather to apply them as individual or single formulations.The pesticide applicator sprayer is normally tractor-mounted and the tractor power-take-off shaft drives the spray pump. Such sprayer equipment (Figure 6) can also be used to apply liquid fertilizer especially where foliar applications are relevant (e.g. cereals).

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