Europe went through equally dramatic changes after 1955. Cases 1 and 2 show that the labor effects of mechanization depend on the alternatives available to the economy. The Indian Punjab provides an opposite example. The green revolution initiated in the mid-1960s led to sharply increased demand for labor, which caused a big rise in real wages around 1968 (Gupta and Shangari 1979).
High capital costs (relative to labor) retard mechanization and lead to selective emphasis on power-intensive operations. Machinery design adjusts to high capital costs by lack of convenience features, simplicity, and reduced durability. Energy is only one of the costs of using machines. Capital and maintenance costs are often larger.
The choice or selection of agricultural equipment is dictated by a multiplicity of factors including the nature and size of the enterprise, the profitability and access to finance, the economic status of the region, the accessibility to a range of equipment options at local level, the ownership (individual, shared or cooperative) of equipment and access to mechanization contractors.For smaller, less accessible areas, knapsack sprayers mounted on a persons back and operated by a manually pressurized nozzle are still quite popular and inexpensive. More specialized equipment including high-pressure orchard sprayers, airblast sprayers, electrostatic sprayers, aircraft sprayers and dusters has also been described in Fertilizer Applicators and Plant Protection Equipment (EOLSS on-line, 2002).Power supply may be considered as autonomous at different levels: at local on-farm level, at local co-operative level or at national level. At local level autonomous power supply may be defined as that power which is generated on-farm for local on-farm use.
This is based on the clear evidence of a global shift towards engine and motor driven mechanization systems. The situation is outlined in detail in Farm Machinery, (EOLSS on-line, 2002). Apart from the tractor, the farm machine that has captured the public imagination is the massive combine harvester, a miracle of modern technology.